Free Literature Essay Samples

Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick’s white whale is often regarded as one of America’s most symbolism characters. The white whale is a symbol that can have many meanings for different people. It is also explicitly stated to have different meanings by the various characters in the story. The story revolves around Captain Ahab and his pursuit of the white whaling. However, other characters reflect on the significance of the whale.

Moby Dick is the personification of evil for Captain Ahab. Ishmael’s opinion of Ahab’s view of Moby-Dick is that “All evil was personified and made easily assailable by Moby Dick”, as he states (154). Ahab’s hatred stems from his whale stealing his leg. This is a 19th century Puritanical substitution for the bodypart that Melville wasn’t allowed to mention: Ahab’s penis. The loss is a metaphor for Captain Ahab losing his manhood. This is what Moby-Dick did. The loss of a leg is a symbol for the loss of Captain Ahab’s manhood, which was really what Moby-Dick destroyed.

Ahab refers to the personal when he says, “it was Moby-Dick that dismasted me; Moby-Dick that brought me to this dead stump I stand on now…it was that accursed white whale that razeed me; made a poor begging lubber of my for ever and a day!” (138). Ahab says at one point that Moby Dick was the person who dismasted him; Moby Dick was the person that brought me to that dead stump on which I now stand…that accursed whale razeed me, made a poor begging slave of me forever and a day! (138). The words “dismast”, “dead-stump” and other descriptive terms have deep-seated connotations that imply impotence, both in the sense of sexual impotence as well as a larger sense of not being able to fulfill one’s desires or duties. Moby-Dick robbed Ahab of his ability to stand on two legs, both literally and in the sense of being unable to carry out one’s duties or desires.

Ahab refers to Moby-Dick’s inscrutable nature, but this is just Ahab trying to give Moby-Dick a supernatural element, making him seem beyond comprehension. Ahab thinks that Moby-Dick will remain evil because people are unwilling to take the time to learn about the mysterious object of their fear. Ahab does not even try to understand the pure animal instincts that Starbuck may describe, as this makes it easier for Ahab to label Moby-Dick pure evil. He tells Starbuck, “That inscrutable creature is what I hate the most; and whether I’m the white shark agent or principal I’ll wreak my hate on him”(139). Ahab’s hatred for Moby-Dick represents his attempt to make the whale sentient. It is not only a carrier but also an originator of evil.

Ahab becomes obsessed with the idea of infusing the whale’s attributes. Ahab’s obsession is a result of imagination, whereas Starbuck refuses to give the whale any symbolism. Starbuck sees Ahab’s motives as a simple desire to “exact revenge on a stupid brute…that just smote thee out of blindest impulse!” (138). Starbuck’s statement is true. If so, Ahab will be driven to madness. Ishmael has to be sincere when he claims that Ahab’s actions were not solely the result of an unintelligent agent. If Ishmael’s words are true, and if Moby-Dick really did act with some level of conscious awareness, Ahab may be able to avoid accusations of monomania and madness.

It is a crazy idea to think that animals can be conscious at that level, based on the information we have about whales. Other animals do not appear to be capable of a forethought malice. Ishmael expresses the symbolism of the whale in a different observation. Ishmael perfectly captures what the whale means to each person’s consciousness, when he states that “by it indefiniteness…it shadows forth voids without heart and vastness of the cosmos” (164). Ahab’s darker side has taken over and he sees this in the whale. Starbuck, on the other hand, is unable to imagine anything beyond the dumb brute. The whale’s color is a white conglomerate, a promise of many colors. The colors of the whale are only revealed through each man’s individual consciousness, similar to Moby-Dick.

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Wheatley opens her eight line block form poem by saying “‘Twas merci brought me out of my Pagan land.'” This means that God Almighty’s compassion brought her from Africa. Her imagery is based on her experience as an African slave. When she was a young girl, her skin color was the same as Cain’s. The poem is a combination of light, dark and gratitude. It’s a testament to the fact that she was introduced to Christianity. Line 2 mentions that her “benighted spirit” is saved by God from sin and evil. This means there is God who is watching over and protecting her in her darkness. If God is not known as a personal salvation, the darkness is not eternal.

America is compared with Africa, the land that is non-pagan and free. It can erase the darkness. Africa, Wheatley’s pagan world, is where people live in houses made from mud. Hospitals are far and away. And children have to travel long distances just to get water. In Africa, food costs a lot if your needs aren’t met. For example, if you’re not a teacher or farmer. HIV/AIDS happens because sex becomes a way to pass time when electricity is not available or there are no other entertainment options. She doesn’t speak much of her journey from Africa but she does see it as an important part of her life. Wheatley uses many different images to represent physical and mental darkness in her poem “On being brought from Africa into America”. In Africa, or the pagan land that she describes, her soul does not become cleansed. Wheatley’s soul is not cleansed when she is in Africa, or pagan land as she refers to.

Wheatley is a poet who breaks down barriers by learning to read and to write. Wheatley’s “American Dream” is to come to America, so writing for her is a way to fulfill that dream and not feel like a slave. Bystanders will notice that “. . . Negros black as Cain”, when Cain’s name is brought up, God protects him just as he does the dark of the slavers that pretend to not know the Lord. They are also protected despite their sins. It is true that the destruction of slavery helps her to restore her faith after being removed from Africa by someone else.

The speaker has never spoken ill of slavery. She realizes she’s there at the perfect time and place for a good reason. Phillis is hoping for redemption through the poem. America, she believes, will bring her salvation but as with everything in life, there can be obstacles. Blacks show a similar behavior to Cain the first Christian murderer who killed Abel. The statement. . . Wheatley’s claim that blacks can be refined the same as other races, and then join them on the angelic railway, impacts our decision. The angelic train represents Heaven, where all believers will be gathered once they treat each other equally as Christians. This is like supporting the best team in football and hoping that everyone will prosper. The speaker does not just ask for equality; he also tells the listeners that God welcomes everyone.

It is negative to say that “Some look down on our sables race” and call slaves black. The expression “Their color is diabolic” means that they are covered in wickedness. This event is accompanied by racism, with humans being called diabolic dice or remaining around to benefit the other race. Considering God’s race creation evil is antichristian. Phillis is a shining example of a change in the way Christians treat one another according to God’s Word. The word darkness is used to suggest the idea of evil, or black people without any spiritual understanding.

This address, which focuses on religion, gratitude, & understanding, reveals the essential loyalty of Negroes to power. If whites do not expect blacks be anti-white then oppression and degrading of people black like Cain must stop. The speaker isn’t resentful, even though she doesn’t mention forgiveness. As society wishes to eradicate the black race from the world, “On being brought from Africa into America” makes the reader feel what a slave would have felt, as they leave behind everything and begin a new life.

Imagine being separated by family members and friends. Wheatley has lived in isolation for so many years that she’s numb about what will happen to her. She’s relieved with praises, blessings, and comforting words. Phillis Wheatley, who is not very familiar with Christianity, did not doubt God’s intentions when she left Africa. She realized, however, that God had always been by her side, even though she hadn’t seen him. Her continued faith allowed her to stay strong and adaptable to new environments.

In the end, it is most important that someone’s color does not hinder them from living their lives. When life hands you lemons to make lemonade, as the well-known quote says, someone will be in an even worse situation than expected. Wheatley, and other Africans brought to America as slaves, suffers from excessive pain and labor. She still believes everyone can come together. Wheatley is confident and strong in her own abilities, despite all the hardships and struggles. Phillis believes everyone should be treated equally, regardless of race, ethnicity, or religion.


Original: Furthermore

Paraphrased: In addition

Wheatley, Phillis. “On Becoming Brought to America from Africa.” The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Robert S. Levine. 422.

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Fidessa is a character that is introduced by Edmund Spenser, in book 1, second canto. This character is vital to understanding Spenser’s message in this poem: The Roman Catholic Church is corrupted and interprets Christianity incorrectly. Fidessa’s name, Fidessa’s description and dress as well the death of Fidessa’s Fiance are key elements in understanding Spenser’s message about the Roman Catholic Church.

Fidessa appears to be the young, beautiful daughter of an emperor. Fidessa is the quintessential young maiden in the chivalric tale. She is beautiful (the knight can’t keep his eyes off her [26]), and is dressed in a grand manner (13). She is accompanied her champion, who was brought into her life by the noble prince with whom she had been betrothed (23-24). Fidessa is a beautiful, innocent girl who seems to need protection and help. Her father is an Emperor (22). By examining the way Fidessa’s character is depicted, we can see who she is and what her symbolism is. Fidessa’s intricate, scarlet-colored dress is reminiscent of a woman in purple in the Book of Revelation of The Bible. She represents false religion. Fidessa is an analogy for the Roman Catholic church because her father was a Roman Emperor. Spenser compares Roman Catholicism and false religion. Spenser is not a fan of the Catholic Church (which is understandable given that Elizabeth was Protestant).

Spenser uses symbolism to describe the character of a name throughout his works. Fidessa, which means “faith”, suggests that Fidessa represents faith. Fidessa actually has the name Duessa. This means “two-faced”, and informs readers that Fidessa is a duality. Fidessa being accompanied by Sans fey, a Saracen who represents “false religion” or false piety, shows that Fidessa has false faith. Her champion knight being a Saracen is an important and odd fact. It’s ironic, after all, that a girl with a faith-based name has a “infidel”. Fidessa’s insincerity will be revealed to the reader. Fidessa has a name that means faith, but she is not sincere. This fact fits in with Archimago’s theme to separate the Redcrosse-Knight from the truth. Archimago tricked the Redcrosse-Knight into thinking Una was immoral and caused him abandon his quest.

Spenser shows his views regarding the Roman Catholic religion through Fidessa’s death. Fidessa’s fiance represents Jesus Christ as a “faithful”, a “meek” and a “debonaire”. This Christ figure dies a “dead innocent” death and is then mysteriously removed. Fidessa searched for her fiance’s corpse for many years. Fidessa’s fiance is Jesus Christ. Fidessa’s represents the Christian Church. Christ’s “body” does not exist because He ascended to heaven and rose from the grave. Fidessa’s search for Christ’s body is an example of the Roman Catholics’ theology being based on a misinterpretation. Therefore, the Catholic Church as a whole is invalid.

Fidessa has an important role in Spenser’s poem “The Faerie Queen” as it helps him convey one of its main themes: the Roman Catholic Church being a hypocritical, false institution. Spenser cleverly weaves his opinions into the allegorical tale he has written. This allows the reader to both enjoy the tale of the chivalric knight’s adventures and the author’s viewpoints.

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Book Analysis

Mark Twain, a dedicated abolitionist, used the book as a platform to argue against the racism and hypocrisy of the south during the 1800s. Twain’s book was used by the abolitionist to criticize the racism and hypocrisy that characterized the south in the 1800s.

Mark Twain used many tools to illustrate his argument about racism, the hypocrisy and flaws in American society. For example, Pap’s drunken lecture scene, Huck’s meeting with Mrs. Phelps or Jim’s involvement and character throughout Huck’s adventure. Jim’s portrayal of the character in this book has caused controversy. Some think Twain used Jim to show that he was a racist, because he depicted him as an idiot who only cares about money. Twain, however, used Jim to make a point about the racism that existed in American society during the 1800s.

Twain reaches his goal by making Jim the most morally superior character. He does this by showing him to be a caring, kind and loyal person. This contradicts southern views of the time which held that African Americans had no value as people and were only property.

Mark Twain’s book was published in 1880s. This was more than 10 years after the end of the Civil War, and the emancipation for all slaves. But racism continued to be prevalent up until the Civil Rights Movement. Huck’s morals in the south show that many Americans still believed blacks to be inferior, for a variety of reasons. They thought they were stupid and lacking emotions. Mark Twain uses Jim’s affection and emotions for his family as a way to show that these stereotypes are false. He also attacks the reasons that Whites believe they are superior and can be racist toward African Americans. Jim feels sad that he is separated from Huck during the fog scenes and relieved to see him again. When I was tired from work and hearing you calling, then went to bed, my heart was broken because you were gone.

Jim describes in this quote how he searched for Huck tirelessly and was deeply hurt when Huck left him. Twain tries to prove that Jim can, like other African Americans, have feelings and emotions towards others in the quote. This evidence that Jim has emotions is contrary to the racial myth that African Americans have no feelings. It supports Twain’s anti-racism argument. Jim’s emotional side is also revealed when he describes his family. Jim’s emotional state was affected by his separation from his daughter and wife before the book.

In the end of the book, we can see that his family is very important to him. His separation from them causes him great emotional distress. Huck would watch out for the Duke and King on the raft while Jim kept the raft on track. Jim weeps for his family, which he has missed dearly. When I woke up at dawn, he had his head between his knees and was moaning. I did not notice nor tell anyone. I knew what was going on. He was worried about his wife, and his children up there.. I believe that he cared for his people the same way white folks care for theirs. It’s not natural to me but I’m sure it is. (Twain 161).

The quote is essential to Twain’s case because it refutes the idea that was prevalent at the time: blacks couldn’t love their families or care for others. The reader can understand the racism in American society when Huck says that he doesn’t believe blacks are capable of caring and loving their families.

Twain uses Huck’s lines and Jim’s feelings about his family in order to show that African Americans are no different than whites. He also shows that the racist values and beliefs that Huck, along with millions of other people had learned as children were completely wrong. Jim thanks Huck for all the work he did to help Jim become free. This happens before the King and Duke scene. Jim declares, “Pooty Soon I’ll Be A-South’n For Joy, En I’ll Say, It’s All On Accounts Of Huck. I’m A Freeman, And I Couldn’t Ever Been Free If it Hadn’t Ben For Huck. Huck Did it.

Jim won’t forget you, Huck. Twain adds this line in order to say that Jim Huck are both equals. Twain says in this line that Huck is equal to Jim and that they can have a relationship.

Twain was also critical of racism by pointing out the hypocrisy of racist societies. Twain’s second angle of his attack on racism is how hypocritical the ideas of the racist society were. Jim is a loyal, compassionate and generous character throughout the book. In contrast, most Caucasian people are evil, selfish, and backstabbing.

The idea that Caucasians, in particular morally, are superior to other races is untrue. The book shows a strong contrast between Jim Pap. Pap, on the other hand, represents evil. He is even linked to the devil.

Jim’s compassion and selflessness towards Huck is the biggest difference between him and Pap, who is selfish and neglects Huck. Jim takes care of Huck when they discover the floating house in which Pap is dead. To protect Huck against the grief of a loss, Jim refuses to show him the face. Huck told the story “Come inside, Huck. But look at that face. It’s too horrifying” (Twain 62).

Jim’s simple act shows his kindness, which sets him apart from Pap as well as other whites from the story including the king, the duke and others. Jim shows that he cares for others, including Huck. He tries to save Huck from his father’s death. Pap’s selfishness and lack of care is evident when he finally sees Huck again after a few months, but is concerned more with his money. “Looky there — mind the way you talk to, I’m already standing as high as I’m going to be able to stand. Don’t give any sass. Since I arrived in town, I haven’t been able to hear anything else but that you are rich. It’s not just me. It’s the reason I came. You give me that money today — I’m coming.

Twain uses this line to show that Pap, despite being white, was selfish and careless. Huck has not seen his son for some time. Huck decides to go to Huck to “rightfully claim” the money. Twain draws a parallel between Jim’s character and Pap’s to demonstrate that African Americans don’t always have a superior morality. Jim also shows loyalty to Huck and other characters, as shown by his refusal to leave the boat despite many opportunities for escape. His desire for freedom was strong. Jim’s loyalty to Tom is shown when he sacrifices his freedom so that he can stay and help heal Tom. Huck’s retelling of the story is “No, sir — I won’t leave dis place, without a physician; not if it has been forty years! I knewed he had a white interior” (Twain 279).

Jim claims that he’ll stay with Tom for however long it takes until the doctor arrives. This line is important because it shows how loyal Jim is. He would give up his freedom, which he has been waiting years to get just to ensure Tom’s safety until the doctor arrived. Huck’s reaction to Jim’s act is also important because it shows racism that only Whites are capable of loyalty, compassion, and care. Huck, who believes that Jim was white on the inside, is not the only one to believe this. Miss Watson broke a promise she made never to sell Jim. King and Duke were also unfaithful by selling Jim.

Twain introduces these incidents into the novel as a way to show how, contrary of what people believed in his time, one’s character is not determined simply by race. It shows how, despite the stereotypes of African Americans as being sneaky or disloyal held by hypocritical white Americans at the time, all races are capable of being disloyal.

Twain created Jim to be gullible, unintelligent, and support Twain’s argument about discrimination against blacks. Twain was of the opinion that African Americans and whites are both equal. Twain also thought that racism towards blacks is hypocritical.

Twain uses Jim as an example of kindness, compassion, loyalty, unselfishness to demonstrate that white characters are selfish; lack compassion; and disloyalty. Twain also uses other whites as examples of their own hypocrisy. Jim’s relationships and emotions are important, because they prove that African Americans can have real relationships and emotions.

Works Cited

Twain, Mark. Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn: An Authoritative text Contexts And Sources Critique. Thomas Cooley edited the 3rd edition, Norton & Company 1999.

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Tarzan has remained a popular fictional character in novels, music, and songs for much of the 19th-century. This has led to a relationship with various social, cultural, political, and economic spheres. This has been a major influence on radio, film, television, books, and comic strips. Tarzan ancestry films have received positive public reception. In addition to the increase in popularity, his super hero persona of saving animals and people from evil is also being displayed onscreen. Tarzan has been featured in 47 of the 89 films that were made between 1918 and 2008, with his stories being narrated on screen. Dracula’s success is rated higher. Tarzan first appeared on the screen in 1918. It was a silent film.

Character’s BiographyTarzan descends from the British couple that rebels abandoned along the Atlantic Coast in Africa. His mother died before he could even walk, and the ape chief who adopted him murdered his father. Tarzan was a young boy when the author wrote his Jungle Tales of Tarzan six-book series. Tarzan is an ape’s name, but his English nickname (nickname) is John Clayton Earl Greystoke. Burroughs created a hero with few or no faults. He describes the character as brown, tall and handsome with a Caucasian appearance. Also, he has grey-blue eyes and black long hair. He is bold, unwavering and trustworthy in his expressions. He is intelligent because he can learn new languages quickly. He has many of the above traits, and more. It is because of these characteristics that he stands out from other heroes. His characteristics are connected both in theory and in reality. Disney’s Tarzan was a huge success because of his abilities.

Tarzan’s filmography has changed dramatically from 1918 until 2008, the year of its last release. There have been 89 films released. Tarzan films were adapted from silent movies based on the original Tarzan novels. In the early days of Tarzan’s conception, these were shown. Elmo Abraham was the first Tarzan to be portrayed by an adult actor in Tarzan of the Apes (1918). Tarzan’s movie was authorized in the 1930s, and continued until the 1960s. Johnny Weissmuller played the role of Tarzan the Ape Man from 1932 to 1948. Weissmuller was told to have his inheritors portray the ape as someone who could understand pidgin. The refined noblesse of Burroughs novels was not the same. Tarzan and the Fearless, Tarzan and the Leopard Woman, Tarzan’s Desert Mystery, Tarzan’s Secret Treasure, Tarzan’s New York Adventure, Tarzan’s New York Adventure, Tarzan’s Revenge, Tarzan Finds an Son, Tarzan Triumphs, Tarzan’s New York Adventure, Tarzan’s New York Adventure, Tarzan’s New York Adventure, Tarzan’s New York Adventure, and Tarzan’

Sy Wentraub, who bought the rights to Sol Lesser’s film, continued this “me Tarzan you Jane”, portrayal of Tarzan until the 1950s. Tarzans Greatest Adventure is the first film produced by Wentraub. It was followed by eight others, including Tarzans Hidden Jungle and Tarzans Magic Fountain. One television series was produced. Weintraub’s Tarzan resembles the Edgar Rice Burroughs character in his novels. He is a learned, educated jungle lord. Tarzan movies were mostly black-and white films shot on studio sets. Stock jungle recordings were also added. Weintraub’s films, from 1959 to the present day, were filmed in foreign countries and appeared in full color.

Tarzan and the Fearless, starring Buster Crabbe (1933), and The Adventures of Tarzan, starring Herman Brix (1935), were among the series and movies that competed against the franchise. The last series was unique in its age because it was recorded partly on location (Guatemala), and Tarzan was shown as educated.

Tarzan films, which have been around since the 1930s and often included Jane, Tarzan’s companion chimpanzee, were frequently filmed with Cheetah. Cast included an adopted child, who was often referred to as “Boy”. Weintraub produced films from 1959 that cut Jane out of the story and made Tarzan a lone explorer. It showed that he was confident in his own abilities and did not require any further assistance. This was an important transformation. Tarzan movies have only been made occasionally since then, and they are a bit of an anomaly. Disney’s animated Tarzan (1999), a remake of the 1984 film Greystoke, The Legend of Tarzan Lord of the Apes, was a major step forward for the ape-man.

Disney has adapted the animated story after 47 narrations. Disney confirmed that the Tarzan film is a fairy tale for both the cartoon and movie production. The first animated action was added to a cartoon. This essay will analyze the development of Tarzan films, the influences of socio-political factors, and its aesthetic or cinematographic forerunners. Tarzan’s storylines have changed over the years, but his character and reputation remain unchanged. Tarzan is known for its imitating of adventures and its exhilarating experiences. The Tarzan world was created by a combination of influences from a wide range of genres, as well as the adventure and heroism of films of the early 19th century. If you look closely at the many influences that went into making this film, it becomes clear that its origins are a combination of westerns and action films as well the aesthetics of noir.

Disney’s Tarzan began a whole new era in the evolution of Tarzan. Disney’s Tarzan (1999), an animated film based on the 1984 movie The Legend of Tarzan of Lord of the Apes, inspired a new beginning for the heroic man ape. The film is a children’s favourite, with a number of catchy songs. The public would probably call it “The Jungle Book”, as the songs are so catchy. This film is one of the most eviscerating animated films ever made by the studio. Disney’s Tarzan is a far cry from the novel by the author (Edgar Rice Burroughs), but it still has a lot of charm. It is clear that the Disney tale would be better enjoyed if it was read in its entirety. It is the same story as it was when I wrote this.

Tarzan was the child that Kala saved. Kala’s a gorilla and it is Sabor the leopard that is responsible for Tarzan becoming an orphan. Kerchak, leader of Kerchak gorilla tribe, allows Kala to care for Tarzan. Tarzan, who grew up with a broken-down family, has trouble adjusting to Jane. She is on a discovery trip for gorillas. A slap is given to him for his curiosity. Jane helps him learn about Western culture and he begins to speak English. Jane’s father and Clayton, their guide, were on the hunt to capture gorillas. Tarzan becomes enamored with Jane and takes her to the gorilla habitat, where he is captured. Tarzan defeats the evil man thanks to Terk, Tantor and their friends.

The film’s visual and aural scenes are reminiscent of The Jungle Book. An incredible animation combined with continuous action will keep you glued to your screen. The soundtrack for Tarzan is the best of all Disney productions and Tarzan films. Phil Collins has been producing average music for the past decade, since his Grammy-winning years. He reinvents himself now by mixing pop and cool rhythms. The song enhances the film by giving kids a chance to watch it in a more enjoyable way. Disney has achieved its goal of making movies that appeal to children of various ages with Tarzan Hero. Sabor was an excellent villain, and I think he’s better than Clayton. Characters interrelate strongly so we are able to see what they have in mind for their choices. This is a movie that has great storytelling.

Disney’s use of the “Deep Canvas Animation” technique is a great addition to Tarzan. The two-dimensional character can move in the jungle with credibility. Disney’s Tarzan humor is exceptional. Disney’s past humor hasn’t been memorable, for example. Disney has a history of making fart-jokes and annoying humor. Disney’s Tarzan is full of genuine, innovative and universal wittiness. Our favorite scene is the one where Jane is chased by baboons. Tarzan mysteriously appears to save her. Jane, who is still unfamiliar with Tarzan, screams for him to put her down as soon as they reach a safe place. Then, when she saw the baboons following her, Jane yelled for her to be picked up. Disney is likely to use similar jokes in future films. The cartoon’s virtuousness gives it a fun and light-hearted atmosphere.

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It is astonishingly diverse but it shares six common elements. Each of these elements can be broken down and analysed to gain a greater understanding of what is being explored. The elements that make up fiction include plot, point-of-view, characterisation, setting, symbolism, and theme. John Updike masterfully uses all of these aspects to create a unified, complex piece of fiction in “A & P”. “A & P,” recounts Sammy’s reaction when three girls walk into A & P, downtown, and wear nothing but bathingsuits, defying the norms of society. Sammy follows their example and abandons his socially accepted role. By analyzing the fundamental elements of fiction, “A & P,” by John Updike, is illuminated.

The plot is the foundation of all fiction. It focuses attention on the story and gives it a sense of direction. The plot can be broken down into five main elements: the inciting factor, the exposition, the complication, the climax, and the catastrophe. The arrival of the girls at A & P is without a doubt the inciting force, as their entry initiates the remainder of the story. Sammy describes each girl in detail. His observations include “black hair not quite frizzed” (409) and “long, white prima-donna leg” (410). The reader will find small details and dialogue scattered throughout the meticulously rendered scenes. They help them to understand the story, the characters, and the setting. Updike gives the girls greater importance by slowing things down and focusing them on. This makes the audience more likely to recognize the girls and their significance in relation the thematic theme. Also, it sets the stage for a conflict that revolves around the girls’ appearance. Complication is the third step of Freytag’s Pyramid. It introduces conflict by focusing on the negative reactions to the girls’ clothing. Due to the fact that it is considered inappropriate for girls to wear swimsuits in A & P’s, they are subjected by customers and employees alike. Managers also reprimand them, causing the girls great embarrassment. Sammy’s resignation is the culmination of these complications. Sammy had been watching the girls reject social rules passively up until this point. In quitting his position, he takes an active part in the conflict. This is the most important action. Sammy is reverted to his former position and job. Sammy’s sudden realization of “how difficult the world would be for [him] in the future” (414) is what triggers his catastrophe. The epiphany is a somber reminder to the reader that Sammy’s refusal to conform to the social standards will be a lifelong struggle.

This epiphany can be revealed by analyzing the characters, as well as the symbols, of the girls, and of the customers. The characters of both the girls and the customers are static, flat. They don’t change and they aren’t complex. Sammy describes the girls in the shop as beautiful, independent and young. He calls the other customers “houseslaves”, “bums”, or “houseslaves”. Sammy is able to observe “sheep pushing carts down aisles” and girls “walking in the opposite direction” (410) during one scene. Sammy uses the metaphors “sheeps” and “pigs” (413) to show their conformity and passivity. Contrastingly, the girls display their individuality as they walk in the opposite way and wear clothing that makes other shoppers “jerk” or “hop”, or even hiccup (410). Updike creates a stark contrast between the two static sets of characters. This allows the girls to be seen as the foils of the other shoppers. The shoppers represent passive submission and society. However, the girls stand for the freedom that comes with autonomy and individuality. Sammy’s epiphany reveals that the treatment they receive by other characters is representative of their rejection by society.

Updike portrays the girls as symbols for oppressed personality and submission by placing them against an authoritative patriarchal backdrop. Congregational churches and A & P stores are two elements of the scene that illustrate these ideas. The A & P General Store, which is the focus of this entire story, represents American culture and corporate ambition. Sammy is dismissive of merchandise that represents popular culture. He calls it “gunk”, and the girls, who are constantly lost in the vast amount of inventory. These images show the feeling of losing autonomy in a sea of media and advertisements. Churches, on the other hand, are symbols of passive submission. Lengel, a manager, “teaches the Sunday school” and other duties (412). While scolding them for their inappropriate attire, Lengel “concentrates on giving the girls that sad Sunday-school-superintendent stare” (412). His and the Church’s paternalistic beliefs are what seeks to restrain and control girls’ rebelliousness against social values. The girls are symbolically banned from society when these standards are enforced.

Updike binds together the various elements of “A & P”, using narration and point-of-view. Sammy’s narration is the only point of views from which readers can view the story. His unique, first person voice is heard throughout the story in the form casual rhetoric. Sammy is positioned in the third checkout position, facing the door. The reader sees the unfolding action. Sammy does not shift the focus until he leaves A & P and symbolically gives up his position in society. Sammy’s role is more than just that of narrator. He also plays the main character in the story. The character is dynamic and round, unlike other characters. It changes as it goes from passive to active in the fight against society. Updike’s story is told through the eyes the protagonist. This allows the reader to experience the journey as a “sheep”. Sammy’s transformation binds together the antagonists and closes the gap. Sammy unites the opposing forces in this story.

Updike’s “A & P”, a fictional short story, contains a complicated web of elements. Deconstructing and analyzing this web can reveal many hidden ideas. Each of these six elements is interconnected. The plot is the frame that the other elements are built around. Characters and settings also serve as symbols to reveal the theme of the story. The narrator’s perspective is what ties the entire narrative together. After analyzing the interrelationships among the major elements of fiction, it is clear that “A & P'” has a lot of meaning and consistency, but also a lot of complexity.

Works Consulted

Updike, John. The Norton Introduction to Literature, “A&P”. 10th ed. Ed. Alison Booth, Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2011 (original publication). 409-14.

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The four main character of The English Patient is extremely powerful. They are also important to understanding the story. But they can’t stand alone. The patterns of imagery and symbolism in the text offer a richness that extends far beyond literal meaning. These patterns are a great way to learn about each character and make connections between characters. This helps you better understand the novel. The plot wouldn’t have the same impact on the reader if it wasn’t so richly colored with imagery, symbols and metaphors. Skin, hands, maps and elements are among the most important.

The idea that man is a communal book, in which his entire life and all his relationships are “mapped” on him, is a metaphor that is resonant throughout the novel. It is also a literal interpretation, with the scars visible on Caravaggio and the English patient.

The burns on his shins are the worst. Further than violet. This description of the English Patient’s body is horrifying and confronting. It addresses themes of pain, identity construction, and the physical evidence that he has suffered in the past. The reader will learn more as the imagery develops. The body almost looks like a battlefield, where the evidence of his suffering is marked.

The novel uses the image of hands to convey the theme of ambiguity in past experiences and the themes of reflection and observation.

Her father taught her how to use hands. In order to smell a dog’s foot, he would sniff the base. He would describe this as the best smell on earth! A bouquet! A hint of the animal’s daily movements.

The text is concerned with the idea that past experiences are ambiguous, subjective and based on the hands. Hana’s dad acknowledges the reflexiveness of the hands and body but he doesn’t acknowledge the other side of the argument, that the physicality of the body can hide experience and identity. The scars on the English patient’s body show that he is a man without a nation, a name, or an accessible, tangible past. He can live with no identity because of the scars that cover his body.

The nature of experience and history makes it impossible to discover “truths”. The English patient’s characters all use the body as a canvas to record their experiences.

In a love story, it’s not about losing your heart, but finding that sullen, irritable inhabitant. When found, this means the body is incapable of fooling anyone. This is a self-destructive act.

The English patient used this metaphor in a writing. Experience is “mapped on” an individual’s experience through strong emotions, like love. Almasy’s love for Katharine is so intense that it affects his public behavior. He doesn’t even realize that this has happened until the affair ends. The love he has for Katharine is so strong that it makes him behave in a way that is not even aware of it. He acts like a jackal, a predatory animal.

The imagery used to describe the setting in the novel is based on the idea that the villa represents a haven for shell-shocked survivor, while the desert is a spiritual oasis, calm yet dynamic, controlled by the elements. Both settings contain many references to the water in the desert.

He, who never felt alone between the desert towns. Almasy appreciates the “unmarkedness” of the landscape, which makes him feel alive, liberated and nourished. Water is associated with the desert, which refreshes, enlivens, and heals.

In the desert there is only water to celebrate.

Both settings are linked by the imagery of skin and hands, as well as the elements of air, fire, and water. They also explore the same themes. The desert setting is especially important because the scarcity of water symbolizes both the harshness, brutality, and harshness of its environment.

Hana, on the other hand, is also clearly associated with water. Water represents the need for Hana to be cleansed from war’s harshness, as well her desire to clean others. The water’s purity soothes her symptoms and helps to numb them. She is then able escape into the Villa that she created for herself and other characters.

This cools her and she likes it when the breezes hit her, erasing the thunder. She likes to go outside when the breezes wipe out the thunder. Hana has lost everything close to her in war. She escapes the pain of her past, as well as that of others, by connecting with water and other elements. Almasy’s ability to perceive the beauty in the ‘nameless,’ desert is mirrored by Katharine. Her preoccupation with moisture in England keeps her from seeing it. It is also a reference to Katharine needing tradition to connect to her ancestors.

She would never have wanted to die with no name.Katharine’s affinity for water (which is, in many ways, completely opposite to fire), and her desire to have an identity that she can recognise, are both interesting and necessary. This contrasts to the English patients, who are linked to fire.

It is the burning of fire that is connected to the apocalyptic experience of all characters in the novel. Kip’s journey through Europe’s ruins, and his “re-mapping of his life” is a result of being betrayed by England, his father. The fire is shown as both a destroyer and a healer. It can be a sign of an ending, or a beginning. The English patient’s fall in the desert was a metaphorical, if not physical, end. The fire has utterly destroyed his body, and the skin on his face is “aubergine-coloured”. Fire is a metaphor for anger, regret, sorrow and sorrowful feelings, but also represents the essential mediator of human action. Clifton planned to murder Almasy and Katharine in a suicide. While it doesn’t go according to plan, the circumstances are tragic. Almasy does survive to live for a few years longer, but not without suffering. The elements have always had an impact on characters, whether it is positive or negative. Fire has destroyed any evidence of his lover’s existence, after she had died in the Cave of Swimmers surrounded by her element of choice, water. As the novel shows, his memories are all that is left. They are blurred and unreliable due to the morphine. Almasy experienced a different end when Katharine made her separation from him as a lover a priority.

Katharine and Almasy’s marriage is destroyed by European expectations. The expectations of European culture have destroyed the relationship between Katharine and Almasy. Fire is also associated with the intensity of the emotional and physical desires expressed in this relationship.

Once captured by love the heart “burns and consumes”, it cannot return to its original state. In this case, fire represents a fresh start; its consuming quality is connected to love.

Despite this, he is able, through the fire, to remove himself from his name and race. Along with his skin, his identity has been stripped. He doesn’t care what he or who he used to be. His entire life, he has wanted to shed all labels. Ironically, in the months leading up to his death, he was able to achieve psychological freedom while being confined to bed, far from the desert that he loves.

Then his legs were free and he was flying in the sky, bright. He didn’t know why he looked so bright until the moment he realized he had caught fire.

These fascinating comparisons of destruction and fire or love and fire are summed up in the quote above, which has a painfully beautiful way of expressing itself. Air is a part of the journey he takes through fire, another stage or level of suffering he will endure. Both sides are shown; illumination and light, a beginning of anew, as well as pain, loss, and apocalypse. The use of imagery and symbolism to explore themes is not different in this novel.

Kip is filled with images and sounds of destruction when he learns of Hiroshima’s and Nagasaki’s bombing.

He can see the streets burning if he closes their eyes. The heat suffocates bodies in its path, and the sudden shadow of people is seen as it passes through the cities.

The flames of fire are destructive and scorching, almost “betraying” the purity of the air or water. Kip also sees the character that is most closely associated with fire as a kind of betrayer. The English patient can be seen as an adulterer or spy who cannot save his lover. Kip believes that the English patient is a symbol of European colonial power and its destructive nature. He doesn’t care if the English patient isn’t even English. He still feels betrayed because he mimicked colonial power his entire life. Klp’s daily “in the firing line” is due to the potential dangers of bomb defusing. Fire, however, is what betrays Klp. First, he loses his partner, then, the English bomb Hiroshima. Kip is again confronted with these images a few pages later, before he leaves the villa.

He sees people jumping into rivers and reservoirs in order to escape flames or heat. Within seconds, they burn everything they have, including their skin, hair, and whatever else they are holding.

Kip’s recognition of the horrors of war, Western Civilisation, and his own situation and identity spreads like fire. Kip returns to India in the coda. It suggests that, like the English Patient, he is free.

The novel’s meaning is based on patterns of symbolism that involve the elements. Hana Caravaggio English Patient Kip all form a constellation of four characters. The elements are also present in the novel. The imagery is poetic, descriptive and sometimes confontational. This serves to shock the reader to acknowledge the unbelievable circumstances in which the characters’survive’ towards their own struggle for freedom. The use of metaphor, symbolism, imagery and other techniques also reflect the horrors experienced by these four people. These themes are just as contradictory and complex as the actual elements. These elements can be harsh, cleansing or painful. But they are always present. They influence the plot, characters, and imagery in the novel. The novel’s themes are developed through the use of metaphor, symbolism and imagery. This helps to give the story a powerful read that is not possible by using characters or plot alone. These themes are explored in a subtle and elegant way that inspires readers to reflect and think, leading them to gain a better understanding of the book.

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William Shakespeare’s choice of unique illustrations for historical events is what shapes the individual’s perspective on the event. Shakespeare shows the audience the effect of conflict through his Julius Caesar play. Through the portrayal and impact of the conspiracy on Caesar’s flawed characters and the resulting fall of Rome, Shakespeare engages them. Characterisation, tragedy structure, and manipulation of characters and history enrich the play’s historical story.

Composers can engage an audience by dramatising or manipulating the past to demonstrate the impact of intrapersonal conflict. Shakespeare introduces Brutus’ internal conflict in the opening lines of the play. He says, “Than that Brutus… with himself at a war”. This is the first time he reveals it to the audience. Brutus’ inner conflict can be found in his soliloquy. By analogy, “It’s the bright morning that brings out the addeder;… Crown him?” We put a poison in him so that he could do whatever he wanted. Caesar is compared to a snake poisonous because he will lose compassion for people in Ancient Rome once he has too much power. Shakespeare cleverly influences Brutus’s views about Julius Caesar. Shakespeare portrays Caesar as “Caesar sat up to listen”, this third person stance highlights how ambitious he’s become and makes us feel their conflict. Shakspeare accentuates Brutus’ cognitive dissonance when Caesar is dying. He alters history by having Caesar utter the words, “E tu Brute?”. To Brutus, Shakespeare says “Then fall Caesar.” Shakespeare appeals with his dying Latin words to the audience. Together with Brutus, we feel a strong connection to Caesar. But, at the same time, we’re alienated by Caesar who still refers to him in the thirdperson. Shakespeare effectively explores the internal conflict by portraying Brutus in a way that is misinformed and doubtful about the danger Caesar poses for Rome.

Shakespeare uses historical events to engage an audience and explore the impact of conflict between characters. Shakespeare demonstrates how interpersonal conflict impacts the audience during the funeral sermon by portraying Brutus and Antony as manipulative characters that can prevent them from forming a personal perception. Brutus makes the crowd believe that Caesar is a ‘ambitious man’ by saying, “But he’s ambitious, so I killed him.” The repeated phrase ‘ambition’ shows how the conspiracy believes that Caesar has the potential to become a Tyrant, which goes against Roman ideals. Shakespeare uses a rhetorical phrase in Brutus dialogue to emphasize the conflict. The hyperbolic sentence makes the plebeians ponder their fate if Caesar were alive and supports Brutus. Shakespeare uses Mark Antony’s address to further explore the conflict between individuals. Antony starts his speech the same as Brutus: “Friends Romans Countrymen, lend your ears”. Both openings have the intention to manipulate public opinion into opposing viewpoints. The openings of both speeches share the same responsibility. But, Antony’s choice of ‘lend,’ as well as his addressing the plebeians by calling them ‘friends,’ creates a feeling of equality and shows that Antony is less ambitious. Antony reveals a reality that shows Caesar as’my friend faith and justice’ to undermine Brutus speech. He also highlights the error of the conspirators. Shakespeare uses rhetorical questions and high moderation to make the audience re-evaluate their view of the murder of Caesar. This weakens Brutus’ speech. Shakespeare has also fictionalised history by using ambiguity in Mark Antony’s speeches. He uses rhetorical questions “Did Caesar appear ambitious?” as well as feigned intentions, such as “I speak in order not to approve of what Brutus talked” to appeal the audience’s senses for logos and pathos in their engagement with the conflict. Shakespeare explores and effectively portrays the conflict between two characters, while engaging an audience.

William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar explores conflict in characters for the reasons outlined above. Shakespeare also manipulates historical events and characters to influence the audience.

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If you ask someone to describe the feeling of love, they are likely to give a recent account. We have been influenced by romantic literature, professor interpretations and the notion of a magical series of moments in love. Though most people see love-stories in terms of trust and dedication, they are actually social commentary on the mechanisms that lead to avarice, self-fulfillment, and a desire for power. Love-stories are not true romances, as they contain satire.

George Cukor’s romantic comedies The Philadelphia Story (1940), and The Philadelphia Story (1941) are, in a way, comprehensive comments on the peculiarities human desire. The movie is considered a classic “remarriage” film, a genre created by philosopher Stanley Cavell. The analysis based upon Cavell’s ideas on love elaborates the idea that true love has as its object reality. Cavell writes that the key to mutual love is being aware of one another’s needs. He summarizes the fact that affection is not perfection-seeking, but rather is dependent on judgement and is attentive to one’s true self.

The Philadelphia Story makes this point well. Several scenes in the story show the flaws of Tracy and Dexter’s marriage. Dexter wants Tracy to learn from her past mistakes and not make them again. The reasons Tracy divorced Dexter seemed reasonable at first, but as the film progresses we learn how they both played a role in destroying the other’s character. Tracy’s demands and accusations encouraged Dexter to be an alcoholic. When they weren’t met, Dexter became more addicted. Cavell writes that when Tracy pointed out that Dexter’s drinking problem was hers, he responded “Granted.” However, when you got married to me you became responsible for this problem. Red, you were not a help-meet. You were a critic'” (Cavell 164).

Dexter says to Tracy exasperatedly that she has never listened to her problems, but continues to scold Tracy. It’s easier to wish someone well than to truly be compassionate. Similarly, it’s easier to divorce your spouse than to wait for him to sort out his problems. The comedy “Re-marriage” aims at showing the character’s ability to change their nature and not simply adopt a passive attitude. Cavell writes, ”Importance” is a word that is important to Dexter. As he links Tracy being unable to recall the events of the night in which she became drunk to the fact that she cannot tolerate human weakness.

He mocks Tracy’s upper-class snobbery by contrasting two different adjectives meaning “first class”. Tracy, although raised in a first-class environment, frequently fails to differentiate between what being a decent person means and what it is to be acceptable by the elite. A dull father and the absence of a mother could have contributed to this. Tracy weeps after she ponders Dexter’s words and reminisces about her former marriage. In order to truly be happy and to reciprocate Dexter’s love, Tracy must learn to accept the difficulties that life brings. Tracy and Dexter grow closer when they realize that love for each other is built on understanding the flaws of others. Cavill says that Tracy must learn to accept herself and her fallibility. She can then accept life’s highs and lows.

Cavill’s analysis of The Philadelphia Story sheds some light on how the heart works. He shows that real love comes from facing downfalls and pressures in life and learning to grow. Cavill writes about how Tracy threatened to sink True Love, if Dexter accepted another woman as a passenger. He also describes that Dexter grabbed the person who spoke badly of Tracy and told them that they “still have a wife in me until today” (Cavill 151). The words of these characters have much more power than the rest. Dexter has the ability to manipulate situations using his words, just as Tracy can. George appears to Tracy just before their wedding and they discuss the previous evening. Tracy translates George’s message as a wife “Behave naturally” (Cavill 141). Dexter corrects Tracy in a sly manner by saying, “Behave yourself normally” (Cavill140).

Dexter says that Tracy doesn’t need to follow the social standards of how to treat her husband, but should instead be confident. This is especially true in 1940s when women were not given much respect and were considered housewives. Dexter is quick to respond to George’s attempt to mock Tracy by criticizing his patriarchal society beliefs about the proper attitude for a female. Dexter’s and Tracy’s relationship is authentic, even though they may not always agree on certain issues. They accept the challenges that reality throws their way. Cavell believes that remarriage movies require a transformation of the female character. Tracy’s transformation occurs during the swimming scene, when she becomes aware of her flaws. When Dexter worries about her, she says “Darkly, sire,” Not wounded, but dead.”” (Cavill 141). Tracy’s “rebirth”, which is a rebirth, leads her to discover that she has bad assertiveness. Her first marriage ended because she possessed ‘goddess like’ qualities. Tracy’s rebirth makes her human again and frees her from being locked up in an ivory-tower.

The Philadelphia Story ends with her relinquishing her title, Tracy Lord. This is a sign that she’s been freed from all power issues. Cavell is of the opinion that both men and woman have equal spiritual rights in remarriage movies. Cavell uses Milton’s analogy of love to explain how no one would want to destroy their marriage. They just want to fix whatever is causing the strain. Cavell says that to find true love, you must first understand the depth of your problems. You also need to be patient to maintain strong relationships.

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Power, Protest, and Change focused on a period when racism and unequal treatment towards blacks were at the forefront of people’s minds. These stories are based on the authors’ writing style, their vocabulary, and the problem and solution. With their choice of vocabulary, the authors showed author’s choices. The writing style effectively demonstrated the author’s preference. By using problem and resolution, authors demonstrated text structure. After reading the following texts: “Black Boy”, What to the Slave is the Fourth of June”, “Ain’t I a Woman”, Brown v. Board of Education”, “Was Brown v. Board a Failure”, the authors demonstrate the text structure by using vocabulary, the style of the writer and solving the problem.

The authors’ vocabulary choice was a good way to demonstrate their authorship. Frederick Douglass’s ideas are clearly expressed. “You can rejoice, but I must weep” (Frederick Douglass 291). Frederick Douglass has a way of expressing his thoughts that is clear. To make sure that the audience understands what he’s saying. Earl Warren’s words can convey a tone. Earl Warren’s use of inconclusive reveals a confused tone. The reader will get a sense of what the author is trying to convey. It is important to remember that vocabulary plays a major role in the story.

The second thing is that the writing style effectively shows author’s preference. Richard Wright’s writing style was descriptive. Richard Wright 4). “One day, my mom invited the tall-black preacher to dinner with fried chicken. Richard Wright describes the preacher as well as the mother’s purpose in communicating with him. Sarah Garland’s writing style was expository. This style of writing allows the reader vivid images to be created. Sarah Garland says that Brown v. Board has been a failure. Frederick Douglass, in his speech “What’s the Fourth of the July to a Slave?” begins by asking rhetorical queries. He asks, for example, what is the relationship between blacks and whites in terms of independence? And if whites rights are extended to Africans. It is effective, because it is meant to make the listeners think. Frederick wants to influence the audience’s perception of the Fourth of the July. They showed that certain writing styles are effective for helping readers understand.

Thirdly they showed text structures through the problem and its solution. Richard Wright has a problem to solve. “I never thought that without him, there wouldn’t be food. “I don’t understand, I replied. My mother asked, “Who brings food in the house?” “Papa,” said I. He was always bringing food. She answered, “I’m not sure.” She said, “You’ll just have to wait for me to get a job so I can buy food.” Richard Wright had to deal with a situation where he was out of food. His mother needed to find a job to solve the problem. Sojourner spoke about her experience of being treated unfairly by men in “Ain’t I a Woman”. She used analogies to describe the solution. This format is very effective, as it allows the reader to easily follow the story flow.

While some will dispute the effectiveness or choice of text structure, it is clear that an author’s writing style may confuse the reader. Wright’s use of imagery in a lyrical manner can cause the reader to be confused and draw conclusions which are neither present nor eluded. Truth’s parallelism can be mistaken as being too wordy or “on her soapbox” by many critics. They claim she makes a lot of generalizations without providing enough specific information. Douglass uses rhetorical techniques that are misleading. The reader will be led down a path of nothingness by his questions, which is a complete waste. The selections for these units are at best biased, with many examples of the rants, ravings, and other ramblings from speakers. They may be notable but they could benefit from more clarity and evidence to support their usefulness and purpose.

In general, Earl Warren, Frederick Douglass and Richard Wright all used author’s selection and text structure in their writings. Sarah Garland and Sojourner Truth also did. They were able to demonstrate author’s selection through their extensive vocabulary. The writers’ styles of writing successfully demonstrated author’s choices. These writers demonstrated how to use problem and solution in a way that supported the main idea. These authors showed that author’s choices and text structures could contribute powerfully to the overall meaning.

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